Wednesday, February 18, 2015

Tweet

[IWS] CRS: ALIEN REMOVALS AND RETURNS: OVERVIEW AND TRENDS [3 February 2015]

IWS Documented News Service

_______________________________

Institute for Workplace Studies-----------------Professor Samuel B. Bacharach

School of Industrial & Labor Relations-------- Director, Institute for Workplace Studies

Cornell University

16 East 34th Street, 4th floor--------------------Stuart Basefsky

New York, NY 10016 -------------------------------Director, IWS News Bureau

________________________________________________________________________

This service is supported, in part, by donations. Please consider making a donation by following the instructions at http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/iws/news-bureau/support.html

 

Congressional Research Service (CRS)

 

Alien Removals and Returns: Overview and Trends

Alison Siskin, Specialist in Immigration Policy

February 3, 2015

http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R43892.pdf

[full-text, 36 pages]

 

Summary

The ability to remove foreign nationals (aliens) who violate U.S. immigration law is central to the

immigration enforcement system. Some lawful migrants violate the terms of their admittance, and

some aliens enter the United States illegally, despite U.S. immigration laws and enforcement. In

2012, there were an estimated 11.4 million resident unauthorized aliens; estimates of other

removable aliens, such as lawful permanent residents who commit crimes, are elusive. With total

repatriations of over 600,000 people in FY2013—including about 440,000 formal removals—the

removal and return of such aliens have become important policy issues for Congress, and key

issues in recent debates about immigration reform.

 

The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provides broad authority to the Department of

Homeland Security (DHS) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) to remove certain foreign

nationals from the United States, including unauthorized aliens (i.e., foreign nationals who enter

without inspection, aliens who enter with fraudulent documents, and aliens who enter legally but

overstay the terms of their temporary visas) and lawfully present foreign nationals who commit

certain acts that make them removable. Any foreign national found to be inadmissible or

deportable under the grounds specified in the INA may be ordered removed. The INA describes

procedures for making and reviewing such a determination, and specifies conditions under which

certain grounds of removal may be waived. DHS officials may exercise certain forms of

discretion in pursuing removal orders, and certain removable aliens may be eligible for permanent

or temporary relief from removal. Certain grounds for removal (e.g., criminal grounds, terrorist

grounds) render foreign nationals ineligible for most forms of relief and may make them eligible

for more streamlined (expedited) removal processes.

 

The “standard” removal process is a civil judicial proceeding in which an immigration judge from

DOJ’s Executive Office for Immigration Review (EOIR) determines whether an alien is

removable. Immigration judges may grant certain forms of relief during the removal process (e.g.,

asylum, cancellation of removal), and the judge’s removal decisions are subject to administrative

and judicial review. The INA also describes different types of streamlined removal procedures,

which generally include more-limited opportunities for relief and grounds for review. In addition,

two alternative forms of removal exempt aliens from certain penalties associated with formal

removal: voluntary departure (return) and withdrawal of petition for admission. These are often

called “returns.”

 

Following an order of removal, an alien is inadmissible for a minimum of five years after the date

of the removal, and therefore is generally ineligible to return to the United States during this time

period. The period of inadmissibility is determined by the reason for and type of removal. For

example, a foreign national ordered removed based on removal proceedings initiated upon the

foreign national’s arrival is inadmissible for five years, while a foreign national ordered removed

after being apprehended within the United States is inadmissible for 10 years. The length of

inadmissibility increases to 20 years for an alien’s second or subsequent removal order, and is

indefinite for a foreign national convicted of an aggravated felony.

 

Absent additional factors, unlawful presence in the United States is a civil violation, not a

criminal offense, and removal and its associated administrative processes are civil proceedings.

As such, aliens in removal proceedings generally have no right to counsel (though they may be

represented by counsel at their own expense). In addition, because removal is not considered

punishment by the courts, Congress may impose immigration consequences retroactively.

 

There were a record number of removals between FY2009 and FY2013, including 438,421

removals in FY2013. Approximately 71% of the foreign nationals removed were from Mexico.

However, during the same time period the number of returns (most of which occur at the

Southwest border) decreased to a low of 178,371 in FY2013—the fewest returns since 1968.

 

Contents

Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 1

Reasons for the Removal of a Foreign National .............................................................................. 2

Grounds of Inadmissibility ........................................................................................................ 3

Grounds of Deportability ........................................................................................................... 4

Consequences of an Order of Removal ........................................................................................... 5

Removal Processes .......................................................................................................................... 5

Standard Removal Process (INA §240) ..................................................................................... 7

Stipulated Removal (INA §240(d)) ..................................................................................... 7

Streamlined Removal Processes ................................................................................................ 8

Expedited Removal of Arriving Aliens (INA §235(b)) ....................................................... 8

Expedited Removal of Aliens Convicted of Aggravated Felonies (INA §238) ................... 9

Reinstatement of Removal (INA §241(a)(5)) .................................................................... 10

Alternative Forms of Removal (i.e., Returns)................................................................................ 11

Voluntary Departure (INA §240B) .......................................................................................... 11

Withdraw of Application (INA §235(a)(4)) ............................................................................. 12

Statistics on Removals and Returns ............................................................................................... 12

Aliens Removed and Returned Since 1995 ............................................................................. 12

Removal Statistics Since FY2002 ........................................................................................... 14

Removals by Type ................................................................................................................... 15

OIS Data ............................................................................................................................ 16

ICE Data ............................................................................................................................ 17

Removals by Country .............................................................................................................. 18

Outcomes of Immigration Proceedings ................................................................................... 19

Relief from Removal ..................................................................................................................... 20

Permanent Relief from Removal ............................................................................................. 21

Cancellation of Removal ................................................................................................... 21

Defensive Asylum ............................................................................................................. 22

Adjustment to LPR Status ................................................................................................. 22

Temporary Types of Relief from Removal .............................................................................. 23

Withholding of Removal ................................................................................................... 23

Convention Against Torture .............................................................................................. 24

Temporary Protected Status ............................................................................................... 24

Deferred Enforced Departure ............................................................................................ 25

Deferred Action ................................................................................................................. 25

Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 26

 

Figures

Figure 1. Removals, Returns, and Border Patrol (BP) Apprehensions .......................................... 13

Figure 2. Removals by Type .......................................................................................................... 16

Figure 3. Removals by Type, as a Percentage of Total Removals ................................................. 17

Figure 4. All Removals: Formal Removals and Returns ............................................................... 18

Figure 5. Removals by Coutry ....................................................................................................... 19

Figure 6. Outcomes of Completed Cases: FY2013 ....................................................................... 20

 

Tables

Table 1. Total Number of Removals: OIS and ICE ....................................................................... 14

Table A-1. Removals by Country .................................................................................................. 27

 

Appendixes

Appendix A. Removals by Country: Top 10 Countries ................................................................. 27

Appendix B. Types of Cancellation of Removal ........................................................................... 28

 

Contacts

Author Contact Information........................................................................................................... 31

 

________________________________________________________________________

This information is provided to subscribers, friends, faculty, students and alumni of the School of Industrial & Labor Relations (ILR). It is a service of the Institute for Workplace Studies (IWS) in New York City. Stuart Basefsky is responsible for the selection of the contents which is intended to keep researchers, companies, workers, and governments aware of the latest information related to ILR disciplines as it becomes available for the purposes of research, understanding and debate. The content does not reflect the opinions or positions of Cornell University, the School of Industrial & Labor Relations, or that of Mr. Basefsky and should not be construed as such. The service is unique in that it provides the original source documentation, via links, behind the news and research of the day. Use of the information provided is unrestricted. However, it is requested that users acknowledge that the information was found via the IWS Documented News Service.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




Links to this post:

Create a Link



<< Home

This page is powered by Blogger. Isn't yours?