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[IWS] INDIA: EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT SITUATION AMONG MAJOR RELIGIOUS GROUPS IN INDIA [June 2013)

IWS Documented News Service

_______________________________

Institute for Workplace Studies----------------- Professor Samuel B. Bacharach

School of Industrial & Labor Relations-------- Director, Institute for Workplace Studies

Cornell University

16 East 34th Street, 4th floor---------------------- Stuart Basefsky

New York, NY 10016 -------------------------------Director, IWS News Bureau

________________________________________________________________________

 

India

Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation

Report No. 552 (66/10/7)

 

EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT SITUATION AMONG MAJOR RELIGIOUS GROUPS IN INDIA [June 2013)

(July 2009-June 2010)

http://mospi.nic.in/Mospi_New/upload/nss_report_552.pdf

[full-text, 419 pages]

 

Highlights

This report is based on the eighth quinquennial survey on employment and unemployment

conducted in the 66th round of NSS during July 2009 to June 2010. The survey was spread over

7402 villages and 5252 urban blocks covering 100957 households (59129 in rural areas and

41828 in urban areas) and enumerating 459784 persons (281327 in rural areas and 178457 in

urban areas). In this survey information on religion followed by each household was collected

as part of the household characteristics. The reported religion of head of the household was

considered as the religion of all the household members irrespective of the actual religion

followed by individual members. Seven known major religions viz. Hinduism, Islam,

Christianity, Sikhism, Jainism, Buddhism and Zoroastrianism were explicitly considered for

data collection as a part of the household characteristics. Among these the followers of

Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and Sikhism formed the four major religious groups. Households

following the religions other than these four religions have been combined together under the

category 'Others'. Some of the highlights of this report are listed below:

In rural India during 2009-10, Hinduism was followed by around 84 per cent of the

households constituting about 84 per cent of the population; whereas 11 per cent of

households followed Islam with about 12 per cent of the population. Christianity was

followed by around 2 per cent of the households constituting about 2 per cent of the

population. In urban areas, the percentages of households and population following

Hinduism were about 81 and 79, following Islam were about 13 and 16 and following

Christianity were about 3 and 3, respectively.

The sex-ratios for Hindus and Muslims in both rural and urban areas showed a decline

between 2004-05 and 2009-10; however those corresponding to Christians showed an

improvement during this period. The overall sex-ratio for the rural as well as for the

urban population showed a decline between 2004-05 and 2009-10.

The average household size, in both rural and urban areas, for Muslims was higher than

those of other religious groups, and the average household size was the lowest among

Christians. The household size in rural areas was higher than that of urban areas for each

of the religious groups.

In rural areas, self-employment was the mainstay for all the religious groups. The

proportion of households with major income from self-employed in agriculture was the

highest among Sikh households (about 36 per cent). The proportion of households

belonging to the household type rural labour was the highest among Muslims (about 41

per cent). In urban India, the proportion of households with major source of earnings as

self-employment was highest for Muslims (46 per cent). The major source of earnings

from regular wage/salaried was the highest for Christians households (43 per cent) in

urban areas.

In rural areas, the WPR for male of age 15 years and above was the highest for the

educational level literate and up to primary (90 per cent) and the WPR for female was

highest for educational level not literate (43 per cent). Among persons with level of

education secondary & above, the WPR for male (70 per cent) was much higher than

that of female (22 per cent). Among rural male with level of education secondary &

above, the WPR was highest for Hindus (70 per cent), followed by Sikhs (68 per cent).

Among rural female with level of education secondary & above, the WPR was highest

for Christians (32 per cent), followed by Sikhs (28 per cent).

In urban areas, the WPR for male of age 15 years and above was highest for the general

educational level literate and up to primary (84 per cent) and the WPR for female was

highest for educational level graduate and above (26 per cent). Among urban male with

level of education secondary & above, the WPR was highest for Hindus (70 per cent),

followed by Sikhs (68 per cent). The corresponding WPRs for Christians and Muslims

were 67 per cent and 65 per cent, respectively. Among urban female with level of

education secondary & above, the WPR was highest for Christians (32 per cent),

followed by Sikhs (18 per cent).

In rural areas, majority of employed persons belonged to the employment category selfemployment.

The proportion of self-employment among male workers was about 54 per

cent and that among female workers was about 56 per cent. In rural areas, a significant

portion of workers among male (38 per cent) and female (40 per cent) were engaged in

casual labour employment. Among the rural male workers, self-employment was the

highest for Sikhs (55 per cent), followed by Hindus (54 per cent). Among Christians in

rural areas, a significant proportion of male (17 per cent) and female (11 per cent)

workers were engaged in regular wage/salaried employment.

In urban areas, the workers were more or less equally engaged in self-employment and

regular wage/salaried employment. The proportion of workers engaged in selfemployment

was the highest for Muslims, followed by Sikhs. Among urban Christians, a

significant proportion of male (45 per cent) and female (61 per cent) workers were

engaged in regular wage/salaried employment. Among urban Hindus, about 44 per cent

of male workers and about 40 per cent of female workers were engaged in regular

wage/salaried employment.

The unemployment rate in rural areas is less than that of urban areas. In rural areas,

during 2009-10, unemployment rate was the highest for Christians for both males (3 per

cent) and females (6 per cent). In urban areas, unemployment rate was the highest for

Sikhs for both males (6 per cent) and females (8 per cent).

________________________________________________________________________

This information is provided to subscribers, friends, faculty, students and alumni of the School of Industrial & Labor Relations (ILR). It is a service of the Institute for Workplace Studies (IWS) in New York City. Stuart Basefsky is responsible for the selection of the contents which is intended to keep researchers, companies, workers, and governments aware of the latest information related to ILR disciplines as it becomes available for the purposes of research, understanding and debate. The content does not reflect the opinions or positions of Cornell University, the School of Industrial & Labor Relations, or that of Mr. Basefsky and should not be construed as such. The service is unique in that it provides the original source documentation, via links, behind the news and research of the day. Use of the information provided is unrestricted. However, it is requested that users acknowledge that the information was found via the IWS Documented News Service.

 




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