Tuesday, December 18, 2012

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[IWS] ADB: JAPAN'S EDUCATION SERVICES IMPORTS: BRANCH CAMPUS OR SUBSIDIARY CAMPUS? [18 December 2012]

IWS Documented News Service

_______________________________

Institute for Workplace Studies----------------- Professor Samuel B. Bacharach

School of Industrial & Labor Relations-------- Director, Institute for Workplace Studies

Cornell University

16 East 34th Street, 4th floor---------------------- Stuart Basefsky

New York, NY 10016 -------------------------------Director, IWS News Bureau

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Asian Development Bank (ADB)

Regioan Economic Integration Working Paper 103

 

JAPAN'S EDUCATION SERVICES IMPORTS: BRANCH CAMPUS OR SUBSIDIARY CAMPUS? [18 December 2012]

by Shintaro Hamanaka

http://www.adb.org/publications/japan-s-education-services-imports-branch-campus-or-subsidiary-campus

or
http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/pub/2012/wp103-japan-education-services-imports.pdf
[full-text, 40 pages]

 

Description

On one hand, trade in tertiary education is highly regulated; on the other hand, it is a considerably liberalized area of services. This is especially true in the case of Mode 3 of international services trade, namely oversea campuses. In the case of Japan, foreign universities are/were free to open campuses in Japan to supply tertiary education services, but those were regarded informal education that was not recognized by the Japanese government until 2004. For campuses in Japan established by foreign universities to supply formal education services in Japan, they are required to satisfy the criteria set by the government to be examined by the University Council and the Minister; but no foreign university campus in Japan actually obtained a formal school status. Moreover, program at the campuses in Japan were not regarded as an equivalent to the program provided at the home campuses abroad. It was only in 2004 when the Japanese government introduced a new scheme called “Japanese Branches of Foreign Universities”, under which they can receive the treatment similar to formal Japanese universities except taxation, though only four campuses obtained this status so far.

 

This paper reviews the development of regulatory status of services trade in tertiary education services, especially education through oversea campuses, and considers the policy implications on two critical issues regarding the regulation of services industry: (i) who between the government and the University Council the regulator is; and (ii) who between the home country and host country has the jurisdiction over the oversea branches of universities.

 

Contents

•Abstract

•Introduction

•Background and Recent Developments in Tertiary Education in Japan

•Restrictions and Regulations on Trade in Education Services

•Policy Implications

•Conclusion

•References

 

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