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[IWS] AfDB: TAKING AFRICA'S IRREGULAR MIGRANTS INTO ACCOUNT: TRENDS, CHALLENGES, AND POLICY OPTIONS [4 December 2014]
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African Development Bank (AfDB)
Africa Economic Brief, Vol. 5, Issue 1, 2014
TAKING AFRICA'S IRREGULAR MIGRANTS INTO ACCOUNT: TRENDS, CHALLENGES, AND POLICY OPTIONS [4 December 2014]
by Charlotte Karagueuzian and Audrey Verdier-Chouchane
[full-text, 16 pages]
According to the International Organization of Migration (2013), irregular migration refers to “movement that takes place outside the regulatory norms of the origin,transit and destination countries”. A migrant is considered as irregular when he does not meet the immigration laws’ requirements while entering, residing or working in a given transit or receiving country. In its 2010 report, IOM (2010) estimated irregular migrants at between 20 to 30 million people worldwide. This represents 10 to 15% of international migration flows. The United Nations (2013) estimate that inter-State migrants stood at 232 million in 2010.
African migrants (both regular and irregular) essentially move within sub-regions, from small, island, landlocked and conflict-affected countries to coastal areas, in search for job opportunities and security. Out of the African regular migrants, 55% migrate within the continent, which is the most important South-South migration flow after Asia according to the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations (2013).
The major bilateral corridors in Africa are Burkina Faso-Côte d’Ivoire (1.6 million), Zimbabwe-South Africa (1.3 million) and Mozambique-South Africa (1.2 million) (Crush, 2010). The top ten sending countries in Africa, which experience an emigration rate of 10%, are Cap Verde, Equatorial Guinea, Sao Tome & Principe, Mali, Morocco, Burkina Faso, Benin, Tunisia, Congo and Algeria (Ratha et al., 2011). The traditional receiving countries are South Africa, Côte d’Ivoire, Kenya, Gabon and Libya (Ratha et al., 2011).
1 | Introduction p.1
2 | An overview of irregular migration in Africa p.2
3 | Acknowledging the gap in qualitative data on irregular migrants p.6
4 | Restrictive irregular migration management: a failure p.9
5 | Policy recommendations: the benefits for the host country of removing policy barriers to irregular migrants p.11
6 | Concluding remarks p.13
7 | References p.14
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