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[IWS] INDIA: KEY INDICATORS OF URBAN SLUMS IN INDIA [24 December 2013]
IWS Documented News Service
Institute for Workplace Studies----------------- Professor Samuel B. Bacharach
School of Industrial & Labor Relations-------- Director, Institute for Workplace Studies
16 East 34th Street, 4th floor---------------------- Stuart Basefsky
New York, NY 10016 -------------------------------Director, IWS News Bureau
Government of India
Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation
KEY INDICATORS OF URBAN SLUMS IN INDIA [24 December 2013]
NSS 69thRound(JULY 2012 - DECEMBER 2012)
[full-text, 64 pages]
Press Release 24 December 2013
KEY INDICATORS OF URBAN SLUMS IN INDIA
Some of the salient findings of the survey are as follows:
NUMBER OF SLUMS
• A total of 33,510 slums were estimated to be present in the urban areas of India. About 41% of these were notified and 59% non-notified. (Annex-I).
• Maharashtra, with an estimated 7723 slums, accounted for about 23% of all slums in urban India, followed by Andhra Pradesh, accounting for 13.5%, and West Bengal, which had a share of about 12%.
• Of the 19,749 non-notified slums estimated to exist in urban India, Maharashtra accounted for about 29%, West Bengal for about 14%, and Gujarat for about 10%.
• Out of an estimated 13,761 notified slums in urban India, Andhra Pradesh had about 23%, Maharashtra about 14%, and Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu about 9% each.
NUMBER OF SLUM HOUSEHOLDS
• An estimated 8.8 million households lived in urban slums, about 5.6 million in notified and 3.2 million in non-notified slums. (Annex-I)
• The notified slums formed 41% of all slums but housed 63% of all slum-dwelling households in India.
• As many as 38% of slum households of urban India were estimated to be living in Maharashtra, and 18% in Andhra Pradesh.
• Of slum households in non-notified slums, 40% were estimated to be present in Maharashtra, and 9% each in Gujarat and West Bengal.
AVERAGE SLUM SIZE
• At the all-India level the average slum size was estimated at 263 households. The average notified slum had 404 households and the average non-notified slum had only 165. (Annex-II)
• For notified and non-notified slums taken together, average slum size was highest in Maharashtra (433), followed by Karnataka (392) and Andhra Pradesh (352).
• State-level average slum sizes of notified slums varied widely. For Maharashtra the average was over 1000 households whereas for Chhattisgarh, it was only 84.
• About 56% of slums in the million-plus cities and 58% of those in other urban areas had less than 150 households.
• About three-quarters of non-notified slums (77% in the million-plus cities and 74% in other urban areas) had less than 150 households. About 40% of the notified slums, both in million–plus cities and also in other urban areas, had 150-450 households.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SLUMS
• At all-India level 44% of slums – 48% of notified slums and 41% of non-notified slums – were located on private land.
• In about 60% of all slums, the majority of houses had pucca structures. The proportion of such slums was 85% among notified slums but only 42% of non-notified slums.
• At the all-India level 71% of all slums had tap as major source of drinking water, the figure being 82% for notified slums but only 64% for non-notified slums.
• The phenomenon of absence of electricity in slums appeared to be largely confined to non-notified slums. At all-India level only 6.5% of all slums had no electricity – the corresponding figures being 11% for non-notified slums but only 0.1% for notified slums.
• In about 66% of all slums, the road within the slum used by the dwellers as main thoroughfare was a pucca road. The proportion was 83% for notified slums and 55% for non-notified slums.
• At the all-India level 31% of slums had no latrine facility, the figure being 42% for non-notified and 16% for notified slums.
• About 31% of all slums had no drainage facility – the figure being considerably higher for non-notified slums (45%) than for notified slums (11%).
• At the all-India level, 27% of all slums had no garbage disposal arrangement – the figures being about 38% for non-notified slums and about 11% for notified slums.
• In an estimated 32% of all slums, the approach road to the slum usually remained waterlogged due to rainfall. The figure was 35% for notified slums and 29% for non-notified slums.
• At the all-India level 24% of slums benefited from welfare schemes such as Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY), or any other scheme run by the Central Government or State Government or any local body. The proportion benefiting from such schemes was 32% among notified and 18% among non-notified slums.
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