Thursday, October 03, 2013Tweet
[IWS] KLI [Korea]: PART-TIME WORK--NETHERLANDS & GERMANY [23 September 2013]
IWS Documented News Service
Institute for Workplace Studies----------------- Professor Samuel B. Bacharach
School of Industrial & Labor Relations-------- Director, Institute for Workplace Studies
16 East 34th Street, 4th floor---------------------- Stuart Basefsky
New York, NY 10016 -------------------------------Director, IWS News Bureau
Korea Labor Institute (KLI)
International Labor Brief (Vol.11, No.9, 2013 ) [23 September 2013]
THE PART-TIME ECONOMY: PART-TIME WORK IN THE NETHERLANDS
In the labour market literature, the Dutch labour market is a special case for its high share of part-time workers. The
Netherlands is the only country in the world with a majority of the working women in part-time jobs. The share of
women working part-time is 60.7%2. In addition, the share of part-time workers among working men is slowly
increasing, because especially younger and older men increasingly work in part-time jobs.
In comparison to other countries, the high share of part-time workers in the Netherlands is exceptional. It is
substantially higher than in other European countries with a large share of part-time workers, such as United
Kingdom and Germany. Despite its already large number of part-time workers, the share of part-time workers in the
Netherlands is further increasing. In Sweden and Denmark, where part-time work started to grow earlier, the share
of part-time workers has decreased during the last decade. Because of its exceptionally high and growing share of
part-time workers, the Netherlands has been referred to as the ‘first part-time economy’ in the world (Visser, 2002).
Labour market analysts do not expect that the high share of part-time workers in the Netherlands will decline in the
near future. Employers in the Netherlands employ part-time workers as part of a flexible labour force. Part-time
work economizes on labour costs, because part-time workers are employed for the hours that they are really needed.
Part-time workers themselves are happy with their work hours (Bosch et al., 2010; OECD, 2010). Only a small
minority of about 4,5% of the large number of part-time workers prefers a full-time job above their part-time job.
This share of involuntary part-time workers is much lower than in countries where part-time work is less frequent.
This paper has two aims, on which I will elaborate subsequently. The first is to explain why and how the part-time
economy in the Netherlands has emerged. Here the focus is on the institutional forces that created the part-time
economy, namely the state, employers’ organisations and trade unions. I will argue that the growth of part-time
work was the unintended outcome of a complex process of actions of actors with different interests. In this process
the interests of women seeking employment, employers seeking labour market flexibility and the government
stimulating labour market participation came together and led to the emergence of the part-time economy.
The second aim is to describe the impact of the growth of part-time work on the life courses and the labour supply in
the Netherlands. I will argue that part-time work has affected not only the life trajectories of women, but also those
of men. Part-time work facilitated the access of mothers to the labour market, and their increased participation
subsequently affected the work hour preferences of working men. Furthermore, the growth of part-time work
increased its attractiveness to younger and older workers. The labour market participation of these categories of
workers is increased through part-time jobs.
Decent Part-Time Work in Germany [in German]
by Thomas Haipeter
Teilzeitarbeit ist ein wichtiges Merkmal des deutschen Beschäftigungsmodells. Doch welche
Ursprünge hat eigentlich der Trend zur Teilzeitarbeit in Deutschland? Wie ist Teilzeitarbeit reguliert?
Und wie lässt sich Teilzeitarbeit unter dem Blickwinkel angemessener (decent) Arbeit bewerten?
Diesen Fragen wird im Folgenden nachgegangen. Dabei wird die Hypothese entwickelt, dass
Teilzeitarbeit ein überaus ambivalentes Phänomen ist. Auf der einen Seite ist zumindest längere
Teilzeitarbeit in den letzten Jahrzehnten zunehmend reguliert worden und eröffnet zugleich Frauen
die Perspektive einer Erwerbstätigkeit, die sie ansonsten wegen der problematischen Vereinbarkeit
von Familie und Beruf nicht ausüben könnten. Auf der anderen Seite aber verfestigt Teilzeitarbeit in
ihrer heutigen Form die geschlechtsspezifische Arbeitsteilung und damit die Ungleichheit zwischen
den Geschlechtern und trägt dazu bei, dass das gesellschaftliche Beschäftigungspotenzial nur
unzureichend genutzt wird. Dies gilt insbesondere für die geringfügige Teilzeitarbeit, die nicht in die
sozialen Sicherungssysteme einbezogen ist und die ein hohes Niedriglohnrisiko aufweist. Neue
Perspektiven einer angemessenen Teilzeit könnten allerdings im Rahmen einer
lebensphasenorientierten Gestaltung der Arbeitszeit entwickelt werden. Hier wäre Teilzeitarbeit eine
entlastende Arbeitszeitoption für Frauen und Männer in Phasen der „Rush Hour of Life“.
This information is provided to subscribers, friends, faculty, students and alumni of the School of Industrial & Labor Relations (ILR). It is a service of the Institute for Workplace Studies (IWS) in New York City. Stuart Basefsky is responsible for the selection of the contents which is intended to keep researchers, companies, workers, and governments aware of the latest information related to ILR disciplines as it becomes available for the purposes of research, understanding and debate. The content does not reflect the opinions or positions of Cornell University, the School of Industrial & Labor Relations, or that of Mr. Basefsky and should not be construed as such. The service is unique in that it provides the original source documentation, via links, behind the news and research of the day. Use of the information provided is unrestricted. However, it is requested that users acknowledge that the information was found via the IWS Documented News Service.
Links to this post: