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[IWS] CRS: INSTANCES OF USE OF UNITED STATES ARMED FORCES ABROAD, 1798-2013 [30 August 2013]

IWS Documented News Service

_______________________________

Institute for Workplace Studies----------------- Professor Samuel B. Bacharach

School of Industrial & Labor Relations-------- Director, Institute for Workplace Studies

Cornell University

16 East 34th Street, 4th floor---------------------- Stuart Basefsky

New York, NY 10016 -------------------------------Director, IWS News Bureau

________________________________________________________________________

 

 

Congressional Research Service (CRS)

 

Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2013

Barbara Salazar Torreon, Information Research Specialist

August 30, 2013

http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42738.pdf

[full-text, 37 pages]

 

Summary

This report lists hundreds of instances in which the United States has used its Armed Forces

abroad in situations of military conflict or potential conflict or for other than normal peacetime

purposes. It was compiled in part from various older lists and is intended primarily to provide a

rough survey of past U.S. military ventures abroad, without reference to the magnitude of the

given instance noted. The listing often contains references, especially from 1980 forward, to

continuing military deployments, especially U.S. military participation in multinational

operations associated with NATO or the United Nations. Most of these post-1980 instances are

summaries based on presidential reports to Congress related to the War Powers Resolution. A

comprehensive commentary regarding any of the instances listed is not undertaken here.

 

The instances differ greatly in number of forces, purpose, extent of hostilities, and legal

authorization. Eleven times in its history the United States has formally declared war against

foreign nations. These 11 U.S. war declarations encompassed 5 separate wars: the war with Great

Britain declared in 1812; the war with Mexico declared in 1846; the war with Spain declared in

1898; the First World War, during which the United States declared war with Germany and with

Austria-Hungary during 1917; and World War II, during which the United States declared war

against Japan, Germany, and Italy in 1941, and against Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania in 1942.

 

Some of the instances were extended military engagements that might be considered undeclared

wars. These include the Undeclared Naval War with France from 1798 to 1800; the First Barbary

War from 1801 to 1805; the Second Barbary War of 1815; the Korean War of 1950-1953; the

Vietnam War from 1964 to 1973; the Persian Gulf War of 1991; global actions against foreign

terrorists after the September 11, 2001, attacks on the United States; and the war with Iraq in

2003. With the exception of the Korean War, all of these conflicts received congressional

authorization in some form short of a formal declaration of war. Other, more recent instances

often involve deployment of U.S. military forces as part of a multinational operation associated

with NATO or the United Nations. For additional information, see CRS Report RS21405, U.S.

Periods of War and Dates of Current Conflicts, by Barbara Salazar Torreon.

 

The majority of the instances listed prior to World War II were brief Marine or Navy actions to

protect U.S. citizens or promote U.S. interests. A number were actions against pirates or bandits.

Covert actions, disaster relief, and routine alliance stationing and training exercises are not

included here, nor are the Civil and Revolutionary Wars and the continual use of U.S. military

units in the exploration, settlement, and pacification of the western part of the United States.

 

Contents

Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 1

Listing of Notable Deployments of U.S. Military Forces Overseas, 1798-2013 ............................. 2

Sources ........................................................................................................................................... 34

 

Contacts

Author Contact Information........................................................................................................... 34

Acknowledgments ......................................................................................................................... 34

 

________________________________________________________________________

This information is provided to subscribers, friends, faculty, students and alumni of the School of Industrial & Labor Relations (ILR). It is a service of the Institute for Workplace Studies (IWS) in New York City. Stuart Basefsky is responsible for the selection of the contents which is intended to keep researchers, companies, workers, and governments aware of the latest information related to ILR disciplines as it becomes available for the purposes of research, understanding and debate. The content does not reflect the opinions or positions of Cornell University, the School of Industrial & Labor Relations, or that of Mr. Basefsky and should not be construed as such. The service is unique in that it provides the original source documentation, via links, behind the news and research of the day. Use of the information provided is unrestricted. However, it is requested that users acknowledge that the information was found via the IWS Documented News Service.

 




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